In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.

1. Alif, Lam, Ra. A Scripture that We revealed to you, that you may bring humanity from darkness to light—with the permission of their Lord—to the path of the Almighty, the Praiseworthy.

2. God—to whom belongs what is in the heavens and the earth. And woe to the disbelievers from a severe torment.

3. Those who prefer the present life to the Hereafter, and repel from the path of God, and seek to make it crooked—these are far astray.

4. We never sent any messenger except in the language of his people, to make things clear for them. God leads astray whom He wills, and guides whom He wills. He is the Mighty, the Wise.

5. We sent Moses with Our signs: “Bring your people out of darkness into light, and remind them of the Days of God.” In that are signs for every patient and thankful person.”

6. Moses said to his people, “Remember God’s blessings upon you, as He delivered you from the people of Pharaoh, who inflicted on you terrible suffering, slaughtering your sons while sparing your daughters. In that was a serious trial from your Lord.”

7. And when your Lord proclaimed: “If you give thanks, I will grant you increase; but if you are ungrateful, My punishment is severe.”

8. And Moses said, “Even if you are ungrateful, together with everyone on earth—God is in no need, Worthy of Praise.”

9. Has not the story reached you, of those before you, the people of Noah, and Aad, and Thamood—and those after them? None knows them except God. Their messengers came to them with the clear proofs, but they tried to silence them, and said, “We reject what you are sent with, and we are in serious doubt regarding what you are calling us to.”

10. Their messengers said, “Is there any doubt about God, Maker of the heavens and the earth? He calls you to forgive you your sins, and to defer you until a stated term.” They said, “You are only humans like us; you want to turn us away from what our ancestors worshiped; so bring us a clear proof.”

11. Their messengers said to them, “We are only humans like you, but God favors whomever He wills from among His servants. We cannot possibly show you any proof, except by leave of God. In God let the faithful put their trust.”

12. “And why should we not trust in God, when He has guided us in our ways? We will persevere in the face of your persecution. And upon God the reliant should rely.”

13. Those who disbelieved said to their messengers, “We will expel you from our land, unless you return to our religion.” And their Lord inspired them: “We will destroy the wrongdoers.”

14. “And We will settle you in the land after them. That is for him who fears My Majesty, and fears My threats.”

15. And they prayed for victory, and every stubborn tyrant came to disappointment.

16. Beyond him lies Hell, and he will be given to drink putrid water.

17. He will guzzle it, but he will not swallow it. Death will come at him from every direction, but he will not die. And beyond this is relentless suffering.

18. The likeness of those who disbelieve in their Lord: their works are like ashes, in a fierce wind, on a stormy day. They have no control over anything they have earned. That is the utmost misguidance.

19. Do you not see that God created the heavens and the earth with truth? If He wills, He can do away with you, and bring a new creation.

20. And that is not difficult for God.

21. They will emerge before God, altogether. The weak will say to those who were proud, “We were your followers, can you protect us at all against God’s punishment?” They will say, “Had God guided us, we would have guided you. It is the same for us; whether we mourn, or are patient; there is no asylum for us.”

22. And Satan will say, when the issue is settled, “God has promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you, but I failed you. I had no authority over you, except that I called you, and you answered me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves. I cannot come to your aid, nor can you come to my aid. I reject your associating with me in the past. The wrongdoers will have a torment most painful.”

23. But those who believed and did good deeds will be admitted into gardens beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein forever, by leave of their Lord. Their greeting therein will be: “Peace.”

24. Do you not see how God presents a parable? A good word is like a good tree—its root is firm, and its branches are in the sky.

25. It yields its fruits every season by the will of its Lord. God presents the parables to the people, so that they may reflect.

26. And the parable of a bad word is that of a bad tree—it is uprooted from the ground; it has no stability.

27. God gives firmness to those who believe, with the firm word, in this life, and in the Hereafter. And God leads the wicked astray. God does whatever He wills.

28. Have you not seen those who exchanged the blessing of God with blasphemy, and landed their people into the house of perdition?

29. Hell—they will roast in it. What a miserable settlement.

30. And they set up rivals to God, in order to lead away from His path. Say, “Enjoy yourselves; your destination is the Fire.”

31. Tell My servants who have believed to perform the prayers, and to give from what We have given them, secretly and publicly, before a Day comes in which there is neither trading nor friendship.

32. God is He Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends down water from the sky, and with it produces fruits for your sustenance. And He committed the ships to your service, sailing through the sea by His command, and He committed the rivers to your service.

33. And He committed the sun and the moon to your service, both continuously pursuing their courses, and He committed the night and the day to your service.

34. And He has given you something of all what you asked. And if you were to count God’s blessings, you would not be able to enumerate them. The human being is unfair and ungrateful.

35. Recall that Abraham said, “O my Lord, make this land peaceful, and keep me and my sons from worshiping idols.”

36. “My Lord, they have led many people astray. Whoever follows me belongs with me; and whoever disobeys me—You are Forgiving and Merciful.

37. “Our Lord, I have settled some of my offspring in a valley of no vegetation, by Your Sacred House, our Lord, so that they may perform the prayers. So make the hearts of some people incline towards them, and provide them with fruits, that they may be thankful.”

38. “Our Lord, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. And nothing is hidden from God, on earth or in the heaven.”

39. “Praise be to God, Who has given me, in my old age, Ishmael and Isaac. My Lord is the Hearer of Prayers.”

40. “My Lord, make me one who performs the prayer, and from my offspring. Our Lord, accept my supplication.”

41. “Our Lord, forgive me, and my parents, and the believers, on the Day the Reckoning takes place.”

42. Do not ever think that God is unaware of what the wrongdoers do. He only defers them until a Day when the sights stare.

43. Their necks outstretched, their heads upraised, their gaze unblinking, their hearts void.

44. And warn mankind of the Day when the punishment will come upon them, and the wicked will say, “Our Lord, defer us for a little while, and we will answer Your call and follow the messengers.” Did you not swear before that there will be no passing away for you?

45. And you inhabited the homes of those who wronged themselves, and it became clear to you how We dealt with them, and We cited for you the examples.

46. They planned their plans, but their plans are known to God, even if their plans can eliminate mountains.

47. Do not ever think that God will break His promise to His messengers. God is Strong, Able to Avenge.

48. On the Day when the earth is changed into another earth, and the heavens, and they will emerge before God, the One, the Irresistible.

49. On that Day, you will see the sinners bound together in chains.

50. Their garments made of tar, and the Fire covering their faces.

51. That God may repay each soul according to what it has earned. God is Quick in reckoning.

52. This is a proclamation for mankind, that they may be warned thereby, and know that He is One God, and that people of understanding may remember.

    • الٓر
    • Alif Laam Ra.
    • كِتَٰبٌ
    • A Book
    • أَنزَلْنَٰهُ
    • which We have revealed
    • إِلَيْكَ
    • to you,
    • لِتُخْرِجَ
    • so that you may bring out
    • ٱلنَّاسَ
    • the mankind
    • مِنَ
    • from
    • ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ
    • the darkness[es]
    • إِلَى
    • to
    • ٱلنُّورِ
    • the light
    • بِإِذْنِ
    • by the permission
    • رَبِّهِمْ
    • (of) their Lord,
    • إِلَىٰ
    • to
    • صِرَٰطِ
    • the Path
    • ٱلْعَزِيزِ
    • (of) the All-Mighty,
    • ٱلْحَمِيدِ
    • the Praiseworthy.
    2
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • ٱلَّذِى
    • (is) the One
    • لَهُۥ
    • to Him (belongs)
    • مَا
    • whatever
    • فِى
    • (is) in
    • ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ
    • the heavens
    • وَمَا
    • and whatever
    • ٱلْأَرْضِ
    • the earth.
    • وَوَيْلٌ
    • And woe
    • لِّلْكَٰفِرِينَ
    • to the disbelievers
    • مِنْ
    • from
    • عَذَابٍ
    • the punishment
    • شَدِيدٍ
    • severe.
    3
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • Those who
    • يَسْتَحِبُّونَ
    • love more
    • ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ
    • the life
    • ٱلدُّنْيَا
    • (of) the world
    • عَلَى
    • than
    • ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ
    • the Hereafter,
    • وَيَصُدُّونَ
    • and hinder
    • عَن
    • from
    • سَبِيلِ
    • (the) Path
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (of) Allah,
    • وَيَبْغُونَهَا
    • and seek in it
    • عِوَجًا
    • crookedness,
    • أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ
    • those
    • فِى
    • [in]
    • ضَلَٰلٍۭ
    • (are) far astray. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • بَعِيدٍ
    • (are) far astray. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    4
    • وَمَآ
    • And not
    • أَرْسَلْنَا
    • We sent
    • مِن
    • any
    • رَّسُولٍ
    • Messenger
    • إِلَّا
    • except
    • بِلِسَانِ
    • with the language
    • قَوْمِهِۦ
    • (of) his people
    • لِيُبَيِّنَ
    • so that he might make clear
    • لَهُمْ
    • for them.
    • فَيُضِلُّ
    • Then Allah lets go astray *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Then Allah lets go astray *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • مَن
    • whom
    • يَشَآءُ
    • He wills
    • وَيَهْدِى
    • and guides
    • يَشَآءُ
    • He wills.
    • وَهُوَ
    • And He
    • ٱلْعَزِيزُ
    • (is) the All-Mighty,
    • ٱلْحَكِيمُ
    • the All-Wise.
    5
    • وَلَقَدْ
    • And verily
    • أَرْسَلْنَا
    • We sent
    • مُوسَىٰ
    • Musa
    • بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ
    • with Our Signs,
    • أَنْ
    • that
    • أَخْرِجْ
    • "Bring out
    • قَوْمَكَ
    • your people
    • مِنَ
    • from
    • ٱلظُّلُمَٰتِ
    • the darkness[es]
    • إِلَى
    • to
    • ٱلنُّورِ
    • the light.
    • وَذَكِّرْهُم
    • And remind them
    • بِأَيَّىٰمِ
    • of the days
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (of) Allah."
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • فِى
    • in
    • ذَٰلِكَ
    • that
    • لَءَايَٰتٍ
    • surely (are) the signs
    • لِّكُلِّ
    • for everyone
    • صَبَّارٍ
    • patient
    • شَكُورٍ
    • and thankful.
    6
    • وَإِذْ
    • And when
    • قَالَ
    • said
    • مُوسَىٰ
    • Musa
    • لِقَوْمِهِ
    • to his people,
    • ٱذْكُرُوا۟
    • "Remember
    • نِعْمَةَ
    • (the) Favor of Allah *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (the) Favor of Allah *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • عَلَيْكُمْ
    • upon you,
    • إِذْ
    • when
    • أَنجَىٰكُم
    • He saved you
    • مِّنْ
    • from
    • ءَالِ
    • (the) people
    • فِرْعَوْنَ
    • (of) Firaun,
    • يَسُومُونَكُمْ
    • they were afflicting you
    • سُوٓءَ
    • (with) evil
    • ٱلْعَذَابِ
    • torment
    • وَيُذَبِّحُونَ
    • and were slaughtering
    • أَبْنَآءَكُمْ
    • your sons
    • وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ
    • and letting live
    • نِسَآءَكُمْ
    • your women.
    • وَفِى
    • And in
    • ذَٰلِكُم
    • that
    • بَلَآءٌ
    • (was) a trial
    • مِّن
    • from
    • رَّبِّكُمْ
    • your Lord
    • عَظِيمٌ
    • great."
    7
    • وَإِذْ
    • And when
    • تَأَذَّنَ
    • proclaimed
    • رَبُّكُمْ
    • your Lord,
    • لَئِن
    • "If
    • شَكَرْتُمْ
    • you are thankful,
    • لَأَزِيدَنَّكُمْ
    • surely I will increase you;
    • وَلَئِن
    • but if
    • كَفَرْتُمْ
    • you are ungrateful
    • إِنَّ
    • indeed,
    • عَذَابِى
    • My punishment
    • لَشَدِيدٌ
    • (is) surely severe."
    8
    • وَقَالَ
    • And said
    • مُوسَىٰٓ
    • Musa,
    • إِن
    • "If
    • تَكْفُرُوٓا۟
    • you disbelieve,
    • أَنتُمْ
    • you
    • وَمَن
    • and whoever
    • فِى
    • (is) in
    • ٱلْأَرْضِ
    • the earth
    • جَمِيعًا
    • all,
    • فَإِنَّ
    • then indeed,
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • لَغَنِىٌّ
    • certainly (is) Free of need,
    • حَمِيدٌ
    • Praiseworthy."
    9
    • أَلَمْ
    • Has not
    • يَأْتِكُمْ
    • come to you
    • نَبَؤُا۟
    • (the) news
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • (of) those who
    • مِن
    • (were) before you, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَبْلِكُمْ
    • (were) before you, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَوْمِ
    • the people
    • نُوحٍ
    • of Nuh,
    • وَعَادٍ
    • and Aad
    • وَثَمُودَ
    • and Thamud
    • وَٱلَّذِينَ
    • and those who
    • مِنۢ
    • (were) after them? *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • بَعْدِهِمْ
    • (were) after them? *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • لَا
    • None
    • يَعْلَمُهُمْ
    • knows them
    • إِلَّا
    • except
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Allah.
    • جَآءَتْهُمْ
    • Came to them
    • رُسُلُهُم
    • their Messengers
    • بِٱلْبَيِّنَٰتِ
    • with clear proofs
    • فَرَدُّوٓا۟
    • but they returned
    • أَيْدِيَهُمْ
    • their hands
    • فِىٓ
    • in
    • أَفْوَٰهِهِمْ
    • their mouths
    • وَقَالُوٓا۟
    • and they said,
    • إِنَّا
    • "Indeed we
    • كَفَرْنَا
    • [we] disbelieve
    • بِمَآ
    • in what
    • أُرْسِلْتُم
    • you have been sent
    • بِهِۦ
    • with [it],
    • وَإِنَّا
    • and indeed, we
    • لَفِى
    • (are) surely in
    • شَكٍّ
    • doubt
    • مِّمَّا
    • about what
    • تَدْعُونَنَآ
    • you invite us
    • إِلَيْهِ
    • to it
    • مُرِيبٍ
    • suspicious."
    10
    • قَالَتْ
    • Said
    • رُسُلُهُمْ
    • their Messengers,
    • أَفِى
    • "Can (there) be about
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • شَكٌّ
    • any doubt,
    • فَاطِرِ
    • (the) Creator
    • ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ
    • (of) the heavens
    • وَٱلْأَرْضِ
    • and the earth?
    • يَدْعُوكُمْ
    • He invites you,
    • لِيَغْفِرَ
    • so that He may forgive
    • لَكُم
    • for you
    • مِّن
    • [of]
    • ذُنُوبِكُمْ
    • your sins,
    • وَيُؤَخِّرَكُمْ
    • and give you respite
    • إِلَىٰٓ
    • for
    • أَجَلٍ
    • a term
    • مُّسَمًّى
    • appointed."
    • قَالُوٓا۟
    • They said,
    • إِنْ
    • "Not
    • أَنتُمْ
    • you
    • إِلَّا
    • (are) but
    • بَشَرٌ
    • a human
    • مِّثْلُنَا
    • like us,
    • تُرِيدُونَ
    • you wish
    • أَن
    • to
    • تَصُدُّونَا
    • hinder us
    • عَمَّا
    • from what
    • كَانَ
    • used to
    • يَعْبُدُ
    • worship
    • ءَابَآؤُنَا
    • our forefathers.
    • فَأْتُونَا
    • So bring us
    • بِسُلْطَٰنٍ
    • an authority
    • مُّبِينٍ
    • clear."
    11
    • قَالَتْ
    • Said
    • لَهُمْ
    • to them
    • رُسُلُهُمْ
    • their Messengers,
    • إِن
    • "Not
    • نَّحْنُ
    • we (are)
    • إِلَّا
    • but
    • بَشَرٌ
    • a human
    • مِّثْلُكُمْ
    • like you,
    • وَلَٰكِنَّ
    • but
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • يَمُنُّ
    • bestows His Grace
    • عَلَىٰ
    • on
    • مَن
    • whom
    • يَشَآءُ
    • He wills
    • مِنْ
    • of
    • عِبَادِهِۦ
    • His slaves.
    • وَمَا
    • And not
    • كَانَ
    • is
    • لَنَآ
    • for us
    • أَن
    • that
    • نَّأْتِيَكُم
    • we bring you
    • بِسُلْطَٰنٍ
    • an authority
    • إِلَّا
    • except
    • بِإِذْنِ
    • by the permission of Allah. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • by the permission of Allah. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • وَعَلَى
    • And upon
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ
    • so let put (their) trust
    • ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ
    • the believers.
    12
    • وَمَا
    • And what
    • لَنَآ
    • (is) for us
    • أَلَّا
    • that not
    • نَتَوَكَّلَ
    • we put our trust
    • عَلَى
    • upon
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah,
    • وَقَدْ
    • while certainly
    • هَدَىٰنَا
    • He has guided us
    • سُبُلَنَا
    • to our ways?
    • وَلَنَصْبِرَنَّ
    • And surely we will bear with patience
    • عَلَىٰ
    • on
    • مَآ
    • what
    • ءَاذَيْتُمُونَا
    • harm you may cause us.
    • وَعَلَى
    • And upon
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ
    • so let put (their) trust
    • ٱلْمُتَوَكِّلُونَ
    • the ones who put (their) trust."
    13
    • وَقَالَ
    • And said
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • كَفَرُوا۟
    • disbelieved
    • لِرُسُلِهِمْ
    • to their Messengers,
    • لَنُخْرِجَنَّكُم
    • "Surely we will drive you out
    • مِّنْ
    • of
    • أَرْضِنَآ
    • our land
    • أَوْ
    • or
    • لَتَعُودُنَّ
    • surely you should return
    • فِى
    • to
    • مِلَّتِنَا
    • our religion."
    • فَأَوْحَىٰٓ
    • So inspired
    • إِلَيْهِمْ
    • to them
    • رَبُّهُمْ
    • their Lord,
    • لَنُهْلِكَنَّ
    • "We will surely destroy
    • ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ
    • the wrongdoers.
    14
    • وَلَنُسْكِنَنَّكُمُ
    • And surely We will make you dwell
    • ٱلْأَرْضَ
    • (in) the land
    • مِنۢ
    • after them. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • بَعْدِهِمْ
    • after them. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ذَٰلِكَ
    • That
    • لِمَنْ
    • (is) for whoever
    • خَافَ
    • fears
    • مَقَامِى
    • standing before Me
    • وَخَافَ
    • and fears
    • وَعِيدِ
    • My Threat."
    15
    • وَٱسْتَفْتَحُوا۟
    • And they sought victory
    • وَخَابَ
    • and disappointed
    • كُلُّ
    • every
    • جَبَّارٍ
    • tyrant
    • عَنِيدٍ
    • obstinate.
    16
    • مِّن
    • Ahead of him *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • وَرَآئِهِۦ
    • Ahead of him *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • جَهَنَّمُ
    • (is) Hell,
    • وَيُسْقَىٰ
    • and he will be made to drink
    • مِن
    • of
    • مَّآءٍ
    • water
    • صَدِيدٍ
    • purulent.
    17
    • يَتَجَرَّعُهُۥ
    • He will sip it
    • وَلَا
    • but not
    • يَكَادُ
    • he will be near
    • يُسِيغُهُۥ
    • (to) swallowing it.
    • وَيَأْتِيهِ
    • And will come to him
    • ٱلْمَوْتُ
    • the death
    • مِن
    • from
    • كُلِّ
    • every
    • مَكَانٍ
    • side,
    • وَمَا
    • but not
    • هُوَ
    • he
    • بِمَيِّتٍ
    • will die.
    • وَمِن
    • And ahead of him *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • وَرَآئِهِۦ
    • And ahead of him *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • عَذَابٌ
    • (is) a punishment
    • غَلِيظٌ
    • harsh.
    18
    • مَّثَلُ
    • (The) example
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • (of) those who
    • كَفَرُوا۟
    • disbelieve
    • بِرَبِّهِمْ
    • in their Lord,
    • أَعْمَٰلُهُمْ
    • their deeds
    • كَرَمَادٍ
    • (are) like ashes
    • ٱشْتَدَّتْ
    • blows furiously
    • بِهِ
    • on it
    • ٱلرِّيحُ
    • the wind
    • فِى
    • in
    • يَوْمٍ
    • a day
    • عَاصِفٍ
    • stormy.
    • لَّا
    • No
    • يَقْدِرُونَ
    • control (they have)
    • مِمَّا
    • of what
    • كَسَبُوا۟
    • they have earned
    • عَلَىٰ
    • on
    • شَىْءٍ
    • anything.
    • ذَٰلِكَ
    • That,
    • هُوَ
    • [it]
    • ٱلضَّلَٰلُ
    • (is) the straying
    • ٱلْبَعِيدُ
    • far.
    19
    • أَلَمْ
    • Do not
    • تَرَ
    • you see,
    • أَنَّ
    • that
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • خَلَقَ
    • created
    • ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ
    • the heavens
    • وَٱلْأَرْضَ
    • and the earth
    • بِٱلْحَقِّ
    • in truth?
    • إِن
    • If
    • يَشَأْ
    • He wills,
    • يُذْهِبْكُمْ
    • He can remove you
    • وَيَأْتِ
    • and bring
    • بِخَلْقٍ
    • a creation
    • جَدِيدٍ
    • new.
    20
    • وَمَا
    • And not
    • ذَٰلِكَ
    • (is) that
    • عَلَى
    • on
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • بِعَزِيزٍ
    • great.
    21
    • وَبَرَزُوا۟
    • And they will come forth
    • لِلَّهِ
    • before Allah
    • جَمِيعًا
    • all together,
    • فَقَالَ
    • then will say
    • ٱلضُّعَفَٰٓؤُا۟
    • the weak
    • لِلَّذِينَ
    • to those who
    • ٱسْتَكْبَرُوٓا۟
    • were arrogant,
    • إِنَّا
    • "Indeed we,
    • كُنَّا
    • we were
    • لَكُمْ
    • your
    • تَبَعًا
    • followers,
    • فَهَلْ
    • so can
    • أَنتُم
    • you (be)
    • مُّغْنُونَ
    • the one who avails
    • عَنَّا
    • us
    • مِنْ
    • from
    • عَذَابِ
    • (the) punishment
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (of) Allah
    • مِن
    • anything?" *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • شَىْءٍ
    • anything?" *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَالُوا۟
    • They will say,
    • لَوْ
    • "If
    • هَدَىٰنَا
    • Allah had guided us *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Allah had guided us *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • لَهَدَيْنَٰكُمْ
    • surely we would have guided you.
    • سَوَآءٌ
    • (It is) same
    • عَلَيْنَآ
    • for us
    • أَجَزِعْنَآ
    • whether we show intolerance
    • أَمْ
    • or
    • صَبَرْنَا
    • we are patient,
    • مَا
    • not
    • لَنَا
    • (is) for us
    • مِن
    • any
    • مَّحِيصٍ
    • place of escape."
    22
    • وَقَالَ
    • And will say
    • ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ
    • the Shaitaan,
    • لَمَّا
    • when
    • قُضِىَ
    • has been decided
    • ٱلْأَمْرُ
    • the matter,
    • إِنَّ
    • "Indeed,
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • وَعَدَكُمْ
    • promised you
    • وَعْدَ
    • a promise
    • ٱلْحَقِّ
    • (of) truth.
    • وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ
    • And I promised you,
    • فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ
    • but I betrayed you.
    • وَمَا
    • But not
    • كَانَ
    • I had *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • لِىَ
    • I had *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • عَلَيْكُم
    • over you
    • مِّن
    • any
    • سُلْطَٰنٍ
    • authority
    • إِلَّآ
    • except
    • أَن
    • that
    • دَعَوْتُكُمْ
    • I invited you,
    • فَٱسْتَجَبْتُمْ
    • and you responded
    • لِى
    • to me.
    • فَلَا
    • So (do) not
    • تَلُومُونِى
    • blame me,
    • وَلُومُوٓا۟
    • but blame
    • أَنفُسَكُم
    • yourselves.
    • مَّآ
    • Not
    • أَنَا۠
    • (can) I
    • بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ
    • (be) your helper
    • وَمَآ
    • and not
    • أَنتُم
    • you (can)
    • بِمُصْرِخِىَّ
    • (be) my helper.
    • إِنِّى
    • Indeed, I
    • كَفَرْتُ
    • deny
    • بِمَآ
    • [of what]
    • أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ
    • your association of me (with Allah)
    • مِن
    • before. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَبْلُ
    • before. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ
    • the wrongdoers,
    • لَهُمْ
    • for them
    • عَذَابٌ
    • (is) a punishment
    • أَلِيمٌ
    • painful."
    23
    • وَأُدْخِلَ
    • And will be admitted,
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • ءَامَنُوا۟
    • believed
    • وَعَمِلُوا۟
    • and did
    • ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ
    • righteous deeds
    • جَنَّٰتٍ
    • (to) Gardens
    • تَجْرِى
    • flows
    • مِن
    • from
    • تَحْتِهَا
    • underneath it
    • ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ
    • the rivers
    • خَٰلِدِينَ
    • (will) abide forever
    • فِيهَا
    • in it
    • بِإِذْنِ
    • by the permission
    • رَبِّهِمْ
    • (of) their Lord;
    • تَحِيَّتُهُمْ
    • their greetings
    • فِيهَا
    • therein
    • سَلَٰمٌ
    • (will be) peace.
    24
    • أَلَمْ
    • Do not
    • تَرَ
    • you see
    • كَيْفَ
    • how
    • ضَرَبَ
    • Allah sets forth *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Allah sets forth *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • مَثَلًا
    • the example,
    • كَلِمَةً
    • a word
    • طَيِّبَةً
    • good
    • كَشَجَرَةٍ
    • (is) like a tree
    • طَيِّبَةٍ
    • good,
    • أَصْلُهَا
    • its root
    • ثَابِتٌ
    • (is) firm
    • وَفَرْعُهَا
    • and its branches
    • فِى
    • (are) in
    • ٱلسَّمَآءِ
    • the sky?
    25
    • تُؤْتِىٓ
    • Giving
    • أُكُلَهَا
    • its fruit
    • كُلَّ
    • all
    • حِينٍۭ
    • time
    • بِإِذْنِ
    • by the permission
    • رَبِّهَا
    • of its Lord.
    • وَيَضْرِبُ
    • And Allah sets forth *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • And Allah sets forth *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱلْأَمْثَالَ
    • the examples
    • لِلنَّاسِ
    • for mankind
    • لَعَلَّهُمْ
    • so that they may
    • يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
    • remember.
    26
    • وَمَثَلُ
    • And (the) example
    • كَلِمَةٍ
    • (of) a word
    • خَبِيثَةٍ
    • evil
    • كَشَجَرَةٍ
    • (is) like a tree
    • خَبِيثَةٍ
    • evil,
    • ٱجْتُثَّتْ
    • uprooted
    • مِن
    • from
    • فَوْقِ
    • the surface
    • ٱلْأَرْضِ
    • (of) the earth,
    • مَا
    • not
    • لَهَا
    • for it
    • مِن
    • (is) any
    • قَرَارٍ
    • stability.
    27
    • يُثَبِّتُ
    • Allah keeps firm *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Allah keeps firm *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • ءَامَنُوا۟
    • believe
    • بِٱلْقَوْلِ
    • with the firm word *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱلثَّابِتِ
    • with the firm word *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • فِى
    • in
    • ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ
    • the life
    • ٱلدُّنْيَا
    • (of) the world
    • وَفِى
    • and in
    • ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ
    • the Hereafter.
    • وَيُضِلُّ
    • And Allah lets go astray *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • And Allah lets go astray *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ
    • the wrongdoers.
    • وَيَفْعَلُ
    • And Allah does *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • And Allah does *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • مَا
    • what
    • يَشَآءُ
    • He wills.
    28
    • أَلَمْ
    • Have not
    • تَرَ
    • you seen
    • إِلَى
    • [to]
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • بَدَّلُوا۟
    • (have) changed
    • نِعْمَتَ
    • (the) Favor
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (of) Allah
    • كُفْرًا
    • (for) disbelief
    • وَأَحَلُّوا۟
    • and they led
    • قَوْمَهُمْ
    • their people
    • دَارَ
    • (to the) house
    • ٱلْبَوَارِ
    • (of) destruction?
    29
    • جَهَنَّمَ
    • Hell,
    • يَصْلَوْنَهَا
    • (in) it they will burn
    • وَبِئْسَ
    • and a wretched
    • ٱلْقَرَارُ
    • place to settle.
    30
    • وَجَعَلُوا۟
    • And they set up
    • لِلَّهِ
    • to Allah
    • أَندَادًا
    • equals
    • لِّيُضِلُّوا۟
    • so that they mislead
    • عَن
    • from
    • سَبِيلِهِۦ
    • His Path.
    • قُلْ
    • Say,
    • تَمَتَّعُوا۟
    • "Enjoy,
    • فَإِنَّ
    • but indeed,
    • مَصِيرَكُمْ
    • your destination
    • إِلَى
    • (is) to
    • ٱلنَّارِ
    • the Fire."
    31
    • قُل
    • Say
    • لِّعِبَادِىَ
    • to My slaves
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • ءَامَنُوا۟
    • believe
    • يُقِيمُوا۟
    • (to) establish
    • ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ
    • the prayers,
    • وَيُنفِقُوا۟
    • and (to) spend
    • مِمَّا
    • from what
    • رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ
    • We have provided them,
    • سِرًّا
    • secretly
    • وَعَلَانِيَةً
    • and publicly,
    • مِّن
    • before *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَبْلِ
    • before *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • أَن
    • [that]
    • يَأْتِىَ
    • comes
    • يَوْمٌ
    • a Day
    • لَّا
    • not
    • بَيْعٌ
    • any trade
    • فِيهِ
    • in it
    • وَلَا
    • and not
    • خِلَٰلٌ
    • any friendship.
    32
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • Allah
    • ٱلَّذِى
    • (is) the One Who
    • خَلَقَ
    • created
    • ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ
    • the heavens
    • وَٱلْأَرْضَ
    • and the earth,
    • وَأَنزَلَ
    • and sent down
    • مِنَ
    • from
    • ٱلسَّمَآءِ
    • the sky
    • مَآءً
    • water,
    • فَأَخْرَجَ
    • then brought forth
    • بِهِۦ
    • from it
    • مِنَ
    • of
    • ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ
    • the fruits
    • رِزْقًا
    • (as) a provision
    • لَّكُمْ
    • for you,
    • وَسَخَّرَ
    • and subjected
    • لَكُمُ
    • for you
    • ٱلْفُلْكَ
    • the ships,
    • لِتَجْرِىَ
    • so that they may sail
    • فِى
    • in
    • ٱلْبَحْرِ
    • the sea
    • بِأَمْرِهِۦ
    • by His command,
    • ٱلْأَنْهَٰرَ
    • the rivers.
    33
    • وَسَخَّرَ
    • And He subjected
    • لَكُمُ
    • for you
    • ٱلشَّمْسَ
    • the sun
    • وَٱلْقَمَرَ
    • and the moon,
    • دَآئِبَيْنِ
    • both constantly pursuing their courses,
    • وَسَخَّرَ
    • and subjected
    • ٱلَّيْلَ
    • the night
    • وَٱلنَّهَارَ
    • and the day.
    34
    • وَءَاتَىٰكُم
    • And He gave you
    • مِّن
    • of
    • كُلِّ
    • all
    • مَا
    • what
    • سَأَلْتُمُوهُ
    • you asked of Him.
    • وَإِن
    • And if
    • تَعُدُّوا۟
    • you count
    • نِعْمَتَ
    • (the) Favor of Allah *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • (the) Favor of Allah *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • لَا
    • not
    • تُحْصُوهَآ
    • you will (be able to) count them.
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • ٱلْإِنسَٰنَ
    • the mankind
    • لَظَلُومٌ
    • (is) surely unjust
    • كَفَّارٌ
    • (and) ungrateful.
    35
    • وَإِذْ
    • And when
    • قَالَ
    • said
    • إِبْرَٰهِيمُ
    • Ibrahim,
    • رَبِّ
    • "My Lord!
    • ٱجْعَلْ
    • Make
    • هَٰذَا
    • this
    • ٱلْبَلَدَ
    • city
    • ءَامِنًا
    • safe,
    • وَٱجْنُبْنِى
    • and keep me away
    • وَبَنِىَّ
    • and my sons
    • أَن
    • that
    • نَّعْبُدَ
    • we worship
    • ٱلْأَصْنَامَ
    • the idols.
    36
    • رَبِّ
    • My Lord!
    • إِنَّهُنَّ
    • Indeed, they
    • أَضْلَلْنَ
    • have led astray
    • كَثِيرًا
    • many
    • مِّنَ
    • among
    • ٱلنَّاسِ
    • the mankind.
    • فَمَن
    • So whoever
    • تَبِعَنِى
    • follows me
    • فَإِنَّهُۥ
    • then indeed, he
    • مِنِّى
    • (is) of me,
    • وَمَنْ
    • and whoever
    • عَصَانِى
    • disobeys me,
    • فَإِنَّكَ
    • then indeed, You
    • غَفُورٌ
    • (are) Oft-Forgiving,
    • رَّحِيمٌ
    • Most Merciful.
    37
    • رَّبَّنَآ
    • Our Lord!
    • إِنِّىٓ
    • Indeed, I
    • أَسْكَنتُ
    • [I] have settled
    • مِن
    • (some) of
    • ذُرِّيَّتِى
    • my offsprings
    • بِوَادٍ
    • in a valley
    • غَيْرِ
    • not
    • ذِى
    • with
    • زَرْعٍ
    • cultivation
    • عِندَ
    • near
    • بَيْتِكَ
    • Your Sacred House, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱلْمُحَرَّمِ
    • Your Sacred House, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • رَبَّنَا
    • our Lord!
    • لِيُقِيمُوا۟
    • That they may establish
    • ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ
    • the prayers.
    • فَٱجْعَلْ
    • So make
    • أَفْـِٔدَةً
    • hearts
    • مِّنَ
    • of
    • ٱلنَّاسِ
    • the men
    • تَهْوِىٓ
    • incline
    • إِلَيْهِمْ
    • towards them,
    • وَٱرْزُقْهُم
    • and provide them
    • مِّنَ
    • with
    • ٱلثَّمَرَٰتِ
    • the fruits
    • لَعَلَّهُمْ
    • so that they may
    • يَشْكُرُونَ
    • be grateful.
    38
    • رَبَّنَآ
    • Our Lord!
    • إِنَّكَ
    • Indeed, You
    • تَعْلَمُ
    • You know
    • مَا
    • what
    • نُخْفِى
    • we conceal
    • وَمَا
    • and what
    • نُعْلِنُ
    • we proclaim.
    • وَمَا
    • And not
    • يَخْفَىٰ
    • (is) hidden
    • عَلَى
    • from
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • مِن
    • any
    • شَىْءٍ
    • thing
    • فِى
    • in
    • ٱلْأَرْضِ
    • the earth
    • وَلَا
    • and not
    • ٱلسَّمَآءِ
    • the heaven.
    39
    • ٱلْحَمْدُ
    • All the Praise
    • لِلَّهِ
    • (is) for Allah
    • ٱلَّذِى
    • the One Who
    • وَهَبَ
    • has granted
    • لِى
    • me
    • عَلَى
    • in
    • ٱلْكِبَرِ
    • the old age
    • إِسْمَٰعِيلَ
    • Ishmael
    • وَإِسْحَٰقَ
    • and Isaac.
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • رَبِّى
    • my Lord
    • لَسَمِيعُ
    • (is) All-Hearer
    • ٱلدُّعَآءِ
    • (of) the prayer.
    40
    • رَبِّ
    • My Lord!
    • ٱجْعَلْنِى
    • Make me
    • مُقِيمَ
    • an establisher
    • ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ
    • (of) the prayer,
    • وَمِن
    • and from
    • ذُرِّيَّتِى
    • my offsprings.
    • رَبَّنَا
    • Our Lord!
    • وَتَقَبَّلْ
    • and accept
    • دُعَآءِ
    • my prayer.
    41
    • رَبَّنَا
    • Our Lord!
    • ٱغْفِرْ
    • Forgive
    • لِى
    • me
    • وَلِوَٰلِدَىَّ
    • and my parents
    • وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
    • and the believers
    • يَوْمَ
    • (on) the Day
    • يَقُومُ
    • will (be) established
    • ٱلْحِسَابُ
    • the account."
    42
    • وَلَا
    • And (do) not
    • تَحْسَبَنَّ
    • think
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • (that) Allah
    • غَٰفِلًا
    • (is) unaware
    • عَمَّا
    • of what
    • يَعْمَلُ
    • do
    • ٱلظَّٰلِمُونَ
    • the wrongdoers.
    • إِنَّمَا
    • Only
    • يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ
    • He gives them respite
    • لِيَوْمٍ
    • to a Day
    • تَشْخَصُ
    • will stare
    • فِيهِ
    • in it
    • ٱلْأَبْصَٰرُ
    • the eyes.
    43
    • مُهْطِعِينَ
    • Racing ahead,
    • مُقْنِعِى
    • raised up
    • رُءُوسِهِمْ
    • their heads,
    • لَا
    • not
    • يَرْتَدُّ
    • returning
    • إِلَيْهِمْ
    • towards them
    • طَرْفُهُمْ
    • their gaze,
    • وَأَفْـِٔدَتُهُمْ
    • and their hearts
    • هَوَآءٌ
    • (are) empty.
    44
    • وَأَنذِرِ
    • And warn
    • ٱلنَّاسَ
    • the mankind
    • يَوْمَ
    • (of) a Day
    • يَأْتِيهِمُ
    • (when) will come to them
    • ٱلْعَذَابُ
    • the punishment,
    • فَيَقُولُ
    • then will say
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • those who
    • ظَلَمُوا۟
    • did wrong,
    • رَبَّنَآ
    • "Our Lord!
    • أَخِّرْنَآ
    • Respite us
    • إِلَىٰٓ
    • for
    • أَجَلٍ
    • a term
    • قَرِيبٍ
    • short;
    • نُّجِبْ
    • we will answer
    • دَعْوَتَكَ
    • Your call
    • وَنَتَّبِعِ
    • and we will follow
    • ٱلرُّسُلَ
    • the Messengers."
    • أَوَلَمْ
    • "Had not
    • تَكُونُوٓا۟
    • you
    • أَقْسَمْتُم
    • sworn
    • مِّن
    • before *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • قَبْلُ
    • before *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • مَا
    • not
    • لَكُم
    • for you
    • مِّن
    • any
    • زَوَالٍ
    • end?
    45
    • وَسَكَنتُمْ
    • And you dwelt
    • فِى
    • in
    • مَسَٰكِنِ
    • the dwellings
    • ٱلَّذِينَ
    • (of) those who
    • ظَلَمُوٓا۟
    • wronged
    • أَنفُسَهُمْ
    • themselves,
    • وَتَبَيَّنَ
    • and it had become clear
    • لَكُمْ
    • to you
    • كَيْفَ
    • how
    • فَعَلْنَا
    • We dealt
    • بِهِمْ
    • with them,
    • وَضَرَبْنَا
    • and We put forth
    • لَكُمُ
    • for you
    • ٱلْأَمْثَالَ
    • the examples."
    46
    • وَقَدْ
    • And indeed
    • مَكَرُوا۟
    • they planned
    • مَكْرَهُمْ
    • their plan,
    • وَعِندَ
    • but with
    • ٱللَّهِ
    • Allah
    • مَكْرُهُمْ
    • (was) their plan,
    • وَإِن
    • even if
    • كَانَ
    • was
    • مَكْرُهُمْ
    • their plan
    • لِتَزُولَ
    • that should be moved
    • مِنْهُ
    • by it
    • ٱلْجِبَالُ
    • the mountains.
    47
    • فَلَا
    • So (do) not
    • تَحْسَبَنَّ
    • think
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • (that) Allah
    • مُخْلِفَ
    • will fail
    • وَعْدِهِۦ
    • (to) keep His Promise
    • رُسُلَهُۥٓ
    • (to) His Messengers.
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • عَزِيزٌ
    • (is) All-Mighty,
    • ذُو
    • Owner (of) Retribution. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱنتِقَامٍ
    • Owner (of) Retribution. *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    48
    • يَوْمَ
    • (On the) Day
    • تُبَدَّلُ
    • will be changed
    • ٱلْأَرْضُ
    • the earth
    • غَيْرَ
    • (to) other (than)
    • ٱلْأَرْضِ
    • the earth,
    • وَٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتُ
    • and the heavens,
    • وَبَرَزُوا۟
    • and they will come forth
    • لِلَّهِ
    • before Allah,
    • ٱلْوَٰحِدِ
    • the One,
    • ٱلْقَهَّارِ
    • the Irresistible.
    49
    • وَتَرَى
    • And you will see
    • ٱلْمُجْرِمِينَ
    • the criminals,
    • يَوْمَئِذٍ
    • (on) that Day
    • مُّقَرَّنِينَ
    • bound together
    • فِى
    • in
    • ٱلْأَصْفَادِ
    • the chains,
    50
    • سَرَابِيلُهُم
    • Their garments
    • مِّن
    • of
    • قَطِرَانٍ
    • tar,
    • وَتَغْشَىٰ
    • and will cover
    • وُجُوهَهُمُ
    • their faces
    • ٱلنَّارُ
    • the Fire.
    51
    • لِيَجْزِىَ
    • So that Allah may recompense *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • ٱللَّهُ
    • So that Allah may recompense *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • كُلَّ
    • each
    • نَفْسٍ
    • soul
    • مَّا
    • (for) what
    • كَسَبَتْ
    • it earned.
    • إِنَّ
    • Indeed,
    • ٱللَّهَ
    • Allah
    • سَرِيعُ
    • (is) Swift
    • ٱلْحِسَابِ
    • (in) the reckoning.
    52
    • هَٰذَا
    • This
    • بَلَٰغٌ
    • (is) a Message
    • لِّلنَّاسِ
    • for the mankind,
    • وَلِيُنذَرُوا۟
    • that they may be warned
    • بِهِۦ
    • with it,
    • وَلِيَعْلَمُوٓا۟
    • and that they may know
    • أَنَّمَا
    • that only
    • هُوَ
    • He
    • إِلَٰهٌ
    • (is) One God, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • وَٰحِدٌ
    • (is) One God, *[meaning includes next or prev. word]
    • وَلِيَذَّكَّرَ
    • and that may take heed
    • أُو۟لُوا۟
    • men
    • ٱلْأَلْبَٰبِ
    • (of) understanding.

Makkah Period This sūrah of 52 verses was revealed in the closing years of the Makkan period of Islam, taking its name from the Prophet Abraham, upon him be peace, whose prayer concerning Makkah and its future people is mentioned in verses 35–41. In verse 5, Moses’ mission is mentioned as leading his people out of the depths of darkness into the light, while in its initial verse, it declares that the Qur’ān was sent to Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, to lead humankind out of the depths of darkness into the light, thus stressing the universality of his mission. 1. Alif. Lam. Ra. (This is) a Book which We send down to you so that you may lead humankind, by their Lord’s leave, out of all kinds of (intellectual, spiritual, social, economic and political) darkness into the light, to the Path of the AllGlorious with irresistible might, the All-Praiseworthy (Who provides for them and all other beings and meets all their needs), 2. God, to Whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth; and woe to the unbelievers because of a severe punishment. 3. They choose the present, worldly life in preference to the Hereafter and bar (people) from God’s way, and seek to make it appear crooked – those have indeed gone far astray. 4. We have sent no Messenger save with the tongue of his people, that he might make (the Message) clear to them. Then God leads whomever He wills astray, and He guides whomever He wills.1 He is the All-Glorious with irresistible might, the All-Wise. 1. For God’s leading whomever He wills astray, and guiding whomever He wills, see sūrah 2, note 10; verses 26-27, note 23; sūrah 6: 39, note 9. 5. And, certainly, We sent Moses as a Messenger, with Our Revelations and signs (miracles to support him), saying: “Lead your people from all kinds of darkness into the light, and remind them (thereby preaching Our Message) of the Days of God.2 Surely in that are signs for all who are greatly patient and persevering (in God’s cause) and greatly thankful (to God). 2. The phrase Days of God refers to momentous historical events, such as destructions of previous communities, turning-points in history, and eschatological events. 480 6. And (recall) when Moses said to his people: “Remember God’s favor upon you when He saved you from the clan (the court and military aristocracy) of the Pharaoh, who were afflicting you with the most evil suffering (by enslaving you to such laborious tasks as construction, transportation and farming), slaughtering your sons, and letting live your womenfolk (for further humiliation and suffering). In that was a grievous trial from your Lord.3 3. For an explanation of this verse, see 2: 49, notes 56–58. 7. And (remember also) when your Lord proclaimed: “If you are thankful (for My favors), I will most certainly give you more; but if you are ungrateful, surely My punishment is severe.” 8. And Moses said: “Even if you and whoever else is on the earth were unbelieving and ungrateful, surely God is the All-Wealthy and Self-Sufficient (as Owner of everything that is or could be, so independent of all creation), AllPraiseworthy (to Whom belong all praise and gratitude).”4 4. See 1: 2, note 6. 9. Has any account not reached you of the exemplary histories of those who lived before you – the people of Noah, and the ‘Ad and Thamud – and those who came after them? None save God has true knowledge about them. Their Messengers came to them with clear signs of the truth, but they thrust their hands into their mouths (in derision and anger, and frustrated by their inability to refute them), and said: “We certainly disbelieve in what you have been sent, and indeed we are in serious doubt about that to which you call us.” 10. Their Messengers said: “Can there be any doubt about (the Existence, Oneness, and absolute Sovereignty of ) God, the Originator of the heavens and the earth? He calls you so that He may forgive you your sins and grant you respite until a term appointed by Him (not destroying you because of your sins).”5 But they said: “You are but mortals like us; you desire to bar us from what our forefathers used to worship: well, then, bring us some clear authority.” 5. For God’s sparing and reprieving a people to a term appointed by God, see 10: 98, note 20. This shows that neither an individual nor a people are subject to some sort of absolute determinism. God Almighty judges them, their lives and the conditions surrounding them as to their own choices, lifestyles, and deeds. 11. Their Messengers said to them: “We are indeed only mortals like yourselves, but God has been specially gracious to whom He wills of His servants. It is not for us to bring you some authority (for our mission), unless it be by God’s leave; and so it is in God that the believers must put their trust. 481 12. “What reason do we have that we should not put our trust in God, seeing that He has guided us to our ways (that we follow)? So, we will surely endure patiently whatever hurt you may do us; and let all those who entrust themselves put their trust in God.” 13. Those who disbelieve said to their Messengers: “Assuredly we will banish you from our land, unless you return to our faith and way of life.” Then their Lord revealed to the Messengers: “Most certainly, We will destroy the wrongdoers, 14. “And most certainly We will make you dwell in the land after them. That is (My promise) for him who fears Me as (the All-Majestic, All-Powerful) God, and who fears My threat.” 15. They (both the Messengers and unbelievers) sought a judgment (through test of right and might), and in the end every stubborn tyrant was frustrated (made to fail), 16. And Hell is awaiting him, and he is made to drink of oozing pus,6 6. In particular, some modern commentators tend to take almost all the expressions describing the other world metaphorically. For example, he renders oozing pus as “water of most bitter distress.” This is due to the presupposition that the other life is a “spiritual” one which will be experienced by the spirit only. But the truth is otherwise. That is, humankind will be both bodily and spiritually resurrected and experience the other life both bodily and spiritually. It is not possible for us to be able to perceive the exact nature of that life according to this life, so the Qur’ān presents that life with the familiar expressions we use in this life. Ibn ‘Abbās, when interpreting the Qur’ānic expression, Every time they are provided with fruits (of different color, shape, taste, and fragrance and that are constantly renewed) therefrom, they say, “This is what we were provided with before.” For they are given to them in resemblance (to what was given to them both in the world, and just before in the Gardens, familiar in shape and color so that they may not be unattractive because unknown) (2:25), says that all the provisions of Paradise resemble those in the world, but they are completely different. For example, there are all kinds of drink and food in Paradise (which are fitting for it), including water, milk, honey, fruit, etc., with which we are provided here in this world, but they are completely unique to the other world, and we cannot perceive their exact nature. We will taste them both bodily and spiritually in our existence that is purely unique to the other world. Similarly, in Hell, there will be oozing pus and boiling water and other elements of punishment mentioned in the Qur’ān, but they will also be unique to the other world. For this reason, rendering the rewards of Paradise and forms of punishment of Hell strictly figuratively or metaphorically is not correct. It means “pursuing that which we have no knowledge of,” which is forbidden in the Qur’ān (17: 36), and forgetting that “the hearing, the sight, and the heart will be called to account for it.” 17. Sipping it little by little, yet hardly able to swallow it, and death besets him from every side though he cannot die, and a still harsher punishment lies ahead 482 of him. 18. An exemplary likeness of those who disbelieve in their Lord: all their works are as ashes on which the wind blows fiercely on a stormy day (and so scatters). They have no control of anything that they have earned (to benefit from). That indeed is utmost error and failure. 19. Do you not see that God has created the heavens and the earth with truth (meaningfully, and with definite purpose, and on solid foundations of truth)? If He so wills (for the fulfillment of His purpose in creation), He can put you away and bring another generation (of humankind in your place). 20. And that is surely no great matter for God. 21. They will appear before God all together. Then those who were weak (in the world and followed the arrogant oppressors in their misguidance) will say to those who were arrogant and oppressed others: “We used to follow your lead: can you now avert from us anything of God’s punishment?” The others will answer: “If God had guided us (to the way to be saved), we would indeed have guided you to it. It is all the same for us now whether we are anguished (about it) or endure with patience; there is no escape for us!” 22. And Satan will say, when the matter is decided: “Surely God promised you something that was bound to come true; I too promised but I failed you. And I had no power over you, except that I appealed to you, and you answered me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves. I cannot respond to your cry for help, nor can you respond to my cry for help. I reject your associating me as a partner with God (in belief or worship) in the past.” Surely, for the wrongdoers (who have wronged and ruined themselves by denying God or associating partners with Him) there is a painful punishment. 23. But those who believed and did good, righteous deeds are admitted to the Gardens through which rivers flow, therein to abide by their Lord’s leave. Their greeting therein (among themselves and from God and the angels) will be “Peace!” 24. Do you not see how God strikes a parable of a good word: (a good word is) like a good tree – its roots holding firm (in the ground) and its branches in heaven, 25. It yields its fruit in every season due by its Lord’s leave. So God strikes parables for human beings, in order that they may reflect on them and infer the necessary lessons. 483 26. And the parable of a corrupt word is that of a corrupt tree uprooted from upon the earth, having no constancy. 27. God keeps firm those who believe by the true, firm word in the life of this world and in the Hereafter; and God leads the wrongdoers astray. And God does whatever He wills.7 7. The good word is any word uttered and/or any action done purely for God’s sake and in compliance with His commandments. The best of words is the declaration of faith, which is ilāha illa-llāh (“There is no deity but God”). It is the seed of Islam planted in the believer’s heart, as well as in the ground. This tree of faith grows elaborate through practice, so that it has its branches in “celestial worlds.” It continuously yields its produce of virtue and laudable works, and causes the blossoming of a magnificent civilization, for the heart which is connected to the higher worlds is always receiving the influx of Divine gifts. The good word or faith is the truth and, therefore, cannot be uprooted from the world. It is well-established and lasting. Like water flowing beneath the scum (13: 17), it causes life wherever it passes and is of great use to people. The good word, besides its metaphorical meaning, is also used in its first, literal meaning. Every good word, in particular when accompanied by good deeds, causes the growth of good “trees” in hearts (35: 10). What is meant by the true, firm word is also the truth of faith. It is established and unchanging. Therefore, believers are firm in their belief and conduct. They do not waver amidst different currents, and they are also firm and persevering in their endeavors on God’s way. On the other hand, wrongdoers are those who do wrong in their deeds, who waver in their thoughts and stray from true belief. Any “wind” is enough to bend or even uproot them. 28. Do you ever consider those who exchanged God’s blessing (of thankfulness and faith) for ingratitude and unbelief, and caused their people to settle in the abode of ruin – 29. Hell – wherein they land to be roasted? How evil a place to settle in! 30. They have set up rivals to God (as deities, lords and objects of worship), and so they have deviated (themselves and other people) from His way. Say: “Enjoy yourselves (in this world). Your journey’s end is the Fire.” 31. Tell those of My servants who believe that they must establish the Prayer in conformity with its conditions, and spend out of what We have provided for them (of wealth, power, and knowledge, etc.) secretly and openly, (and in God’s cause and to the benefit of the needy), before there comes a Day when there will 484 be no trading nor friendship (that will bring any benefit). 32. God is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and sends down water from the sky with which He brings forth fruits for your provision. And He has made the ships serviceable for you, so that they run upon the sea by His command, and He has made the rivers serviceable for you; 33. And He has made the sun and the moon constant in their courses, (and so) serviceable for you, and He has made the night and the day of service to you. 34. He has granted you from all that you ask Him. Were you to attempt to count God’s blessings, you could not compute them. But for sure humankind are much prone to wrongdoing (sins and errors of judgment) and to ingratitude. 35. And (remember) when Abraham prayed: “My Lord! Make this land (Makkah) secure, and preserve me and my children (my sons and their descendants) from ever worshipping idols. 36. “My Lord! They have indeed caused many among humankind to go astray. So, he who follows me is truly of me; while he who disobeys me, surely You are All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate.8 8. For a similar prayer of the Prophet Jesus, upon him be peace, see 5: 118, note 25. 37. “Our Lord! I have settled some of my offspring (Ishmael and his descendants) in an uncultivable valley near Your Sacred House, so that, our Lord, they may establish the Prayer; so make the hearts of people incline towards them, and provide them with the produce of earth (by such means as trade), so that they may give thanks (constantly from the heart and in speech, and in action by fulfilling Your commandments).9 9. While Abraham, upon him be peace, says in verse 35 of this sūrah, “Make this land secure,” he says in 2: 126: “Make this (untilled valley) a land of security.” This shows that he made the prayer in 2: 126 before the one found in this sūrah. As can be understood from the relevant verses, he settled Hagar and his son, Ishmael, upon him be peace, in Makkah upon God’s order, and then he returned to Palestine. He came back a while later, and upon seeing that some people had already settled in the valley of Makkah, which was on its way to growing into a settled land, he prayed: “My Lord! Make this (untilled valley) a land of security, and provide its people with the produce of earth, such of them as believe in God and the Last Day” (2: 126). Then he came once more to Makkah and built the Ka‘bah with Ishmael, upon him be peace, and made the prayers mentioned in 2: 127–129. After that, he paid a last visit to Makkah toward the end of his life and saw that it had already grown into a land of residence and said the prayers and supplications mentioned in this sūrah, verses 35–41. Either he observed idol-worshipping among some of the people, or he was worried that idol-worshipping might appear there, and he prayed to God to save him and his progeny from it. It seems as if these prayers and supplications are the last prayers he made 485 in Makkah. The Prophet Ishmael, upon him be peace, and his children had already made a home there and had begun to grow in number. This is explicit in that the verb “establish” in “establishing the Prayer” is plural, which in Arabic indicates that the subject is at least three people. 38. “Our Lord! Surely You know all that we keep secret as well as all that we disclose; nothing whatever, whether it be on earth or in heaven, is hidden from God. 39. “All praise and gratitude are for God, Who has granted me, despite my old age, Ishmael and Isaac. Indeed, my Lord is the Hearer of prayer. 40. “O My Lord! Make me one who establishes the Prayer in conformity with its conditions, and (likewise) from my offspring (those who are not wrongdoers),10 Our Lord, and accept my prayer! 10. See 2: 124, note 106. 41. “Our Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and all the believers, on the Day on which the Reckoning will be established.”11 11. This prayer of the Prophet Abraham, upon him be peace, as one of the five greatest Messengers and one whom God praises as a community (16: 120) because of his consideration for all people, and as the forefather of the Prophets Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, upon them all be peace, has been fully accepted by God Almighty. Some significant points in his prayer merit special attention: • When he prays for himself, his parents, and his progeny, he addresses God Almighty as my Lord, while He addresses Him as our Lord when he prays for all believers. Thus, he teaches us how to address God. • He lays much stress on the daily Prescribed Prayer as one of the most important forms of worship, and he regards it as the bedrock of servanthood to God and the purpose for life. This is because the Prayer is, in the words of God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, the pillar of Islam, without which the building of Islam cannot be erected (al-Bayhaqī, Shu’ab al-Īmān, 3: 39). • He sees provision, or being provided by God, as the reason for thankfulness to Him. That is, God wills thankfulness in people when He provides for them. Thankfulness is both the door that opens on faith and its main token. Thankfulness means seeing the source of all that one has and attributing it to its real Owner. This shatters the idol of self-worship and leads one to believe in God and worship Him. The pleasure God has placed in provision – food, drink, clothes and other things – serves to arouse thankfulness to God in people. The Prophet Abraham, upon him be peace, cannot include all of his offspring in his prayer for God to make them of those who establish the Prayer; rather he says, from my offspring. As referred to in note 10 above, this is an allusion to 2: 124, which says: Remember that his Lord tested Abraham with commands and ordeals (such as his being thrown into a fire, the destruction of the people of his kinsman, Lot, and his being ordered to sacrifice 486 his son, Ishmael), and he fulfilled them thoroughly. He said: “Indeed I will make you an imām for all people.” He (Abraham) pleaded: “(Will You appoint imāms) also from my offspring?” He (his Lord) answered: “(I will appoint from among those who merit it. But) My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.” Abraham knew that all of his offspring would not be able to be righteous and establish the Prayer. This shows that being a descendant of a righteous one, even if that one be a great Messenger, is not enough to make one of the virtuous; none can claim to belong to a chosen people. This was also explicit in his prayer, “Our Lord! Make us Muslims, submissive to You, and of our offspring a community Muslim, submissive to You” (2: 128).” 42. Never reckon that God is unaware of what the wrongdoers are doing. He only defers them to a day when their eyes will stare (in terror); 43. Hurrying on in fear with necks outstretched and heads upraised, and their eyes are fixed on a point from which they are unable to look away, and their hearts are void (as if filled with air). 44. And warn humankind of the Day when the punishment will come upon them; and those who did wrong (by associating partners with God and other grave sins) will say: “Our Lord! Grant us respite for a short while – we will answer your call and follow the Messengers!” (And their entreaty will get the response:) “Did you not use to swear before that there would be no decline and fall for you? 45. “And you dwelt in the dwelling-places of those who wronged themselves (by associating partners with God and other grave sins), and it became clear to you how We had dealt with them, and We made examples for you (to enable you to grasp the truth and mend your ways).” 46. They schemed their schemes, but their schemes were in God’s disposition (entirely encompassed by His Knowledge and Power), even though their schemes were such as to shock mountains. 47. So do not reckon that God will fail to keep His promise to His Messengers. Assuredly, God is All-Glorious with irresistible might, Ever-Able to Requite (all wrongs). 48. On the Day when the earth is changed into another earth, and the heavens (also), they all appear before God, the One, the All-Overwhelming. 49. On that Day you will see all the disbelieving criminals linked together in shackles, 50. Clothed in garments of pitch and their faces covered by the Fire, 51. That God may recompense every soul for what it has earned. God is indeed 487 swift at reckoning. 52. This is a clear message for humankind, that they may be warned by it, and that they should know that He is One God, and that people of discernment may reflect and be mindful.